The Jews were an exception to this process. Numerous examples illustrate how personal rivalries and political issues meshed together in such struggles. He proceeded to live up to his reputation, successfully challenging the land title of a number of long established families to their estates. When that assembly proved uncooperative, he dissolved it by sending in the grenadiers.
The frustrated legislators responded by murdering him in front of Government House. The Leewards, though small, are a fruitful area in which to investigate the hazards facing white settlement in the tropics Chapter 1. They provide an excellent example of the creation of English colonies out of diverse ethnic and religious groups Chapters 2 and 3.
A minority in the slave society they had created, Zacek convincingly proves that these white colonists were as dedicated, as any in North America, to the defence of their constitutional rights Chapter 5. Her explanation of why the tropical Leewards did not join the thirteen mainland colonies in revolt is clear and succinct.
Given the remit she has set herself, Zacek faces the necessity of dealing with Sex, sexuality and social control Ch 4. Here she regrets that the available evidence is thin. The Leewards had no local newspaper nor did they produce a rich reservoir of diaries and personal letters. Scrappy evidence seems to support general conclusions already drawn elsewhere — that large slave numbers and the absence of laws against miscegenation point to the widespread existence and toleration of inter racial sex between white males and African women.
However Zacek remains ambivalent as to whether sex in the tropics was really more unlicensed than in Britain itself, or whether those at home only wished to think that this was so. On one issue she is clear - that Leeward society officially endorsed the English norm of male dominance and patriarchal control. As with other analysis of Leeward cultural standards, Zacek threads her way through complex quarrels which sometimes ended in society failing to stand by its own expressed value system.
This reflected the spirit of the penal code anti-Popery laws in Ireland. In the colonies there were no prohibitions against Catholics buying and owning land. However the Montserrat Assembly declared that their legislature had passed a law which allowed an heir, who converted to Protestantism, to claim the parental estate. The authorities also intervened to stop the father removing his daughter from the island. Zacek believes that a number of factors worked together to produce support for the siblings rather than their horrified father, the most important being political.
Here the timing of the quarrel between Farrell father and son was important. In the decade of the Jacobite rebellion , anti-Catholic feeling among the Anglican islanders ran high, reminding them of past French invasions in which their properties had suffered. This is a convincing interpretation of the toleration of sexually transgressive behaviour, which would normally have been denounced as illegal and immoral. But the Farrell case could be used to illustrate other aspects of the Irish Catholic experience in the Caribbean.
Leeward Catholics used personal links on the nearby French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique to build up an inter island trade, sometimes legitimately, sometimes by smuggling.
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The coupling of a British base with Catholic contacts could offer career opportunities; again the Farrells provide an example. In Britain won the much coveted Asiento , the right to supply the Spanish colonies with slaves. This meant establishing British officials and trading stations known as factors and factories in Spanish territories to supervise the arrival of the British slave ships.
One of the most important posts was that of factor in Cuba and Richard Farrell from Montserrat succeeded in acquiring this position. His easy access to slaves and his Catholicism meant that his descendants were able to establish themselves as extensive and aristocratic sugar planters on that burgeoning island. The best known Catholic Irish Montserratian in the mid eighteenth century was Nicholas Tuite whose inter island trading eventually focused on the Danish island of St Croix, which he supplied with slaves, Irish provisions and Dominican clergy.
On St Croix he became an absentee plantation owner. In Frederick V appointed him royal chamberlain, describing him as the founder of the Danish empire. The Farrells were also multiple plantation owners on St Croix. Matthew Farrell took over the plantation which the Dominican, Thomas Devenish, had sought to develop and use as a base for supplying the financial needs of the Catholic Mission on the island. While fostering opportunities elsewhere, all the Irish from the Leewards, who could afford it, were keen to visit London, the fulcrum of sugar sales and Bath, a social Mecca for white West Indians.
Settler Society in the English Leeward Islands, by Natalie A. Zacek (E | eBay
Zacek points to the Jews as regarding the Leewards as a business hub from which they could operate throughout the Atlantic world. But the same could be said of the Irish, and indeed was true generally for all ethnic groups on the islands. In his best selling autobiography, the ex-slave Equiano tells how he was brought by an Irish sea captain, sailing from London, to Montserrat. Determined to purchase his freedom Equiano managed to do some trading on his own account. It gives sent into three positions: It introduces advised into three instars: Owing for Comprehensive and opening diseases by Robert H.
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