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Confusion (French Edition)


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The footnotes in my edition inform the player that here there is some room for interpretation, and the remarks in the Critical Report for mm. The confusion of source readings is to some extent increased by the fact that later editions introduce additional variants and alternatives still haunting the Chopin world to this day for instance, editions identified in the critical reports as by Mikuli, Scholtz, Paderewski. In the 3 rd Scherzo, the point of departure is even more confusing. Here is the stemma for this work:. There is a copy checked by Chopin, C, and finally three autograph sources, enclosed in square brackets here.

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As these sources are missing, whether they are really given in the places exactly as shown in the stemma — is speculation. It is, however, necessary to assume such intermediate sources, since otherwise the variants in the first editions can hardly be explained. The main source in my edition is the French first edition, since in the case of the 3 rd Scherzo, the copy C was unfortunately checked only selectively by Chopin — F F proved to be not only the latest, but also the most reliable source despite all engraving errors.

The extant and presumably authorised variants from the rest of the sources are, though, numerous, likewise the footnotes in my edition.

Confusion Definition

Many pianists will perhaps be disappointed, because I picked the dotted version in m. But there are good reasons for editing mm.


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A passage existing in three variants is m. A difficult, but exciting endeavour!

Confusion surrounding Chopin’s Scherzi – episodes 2 & 3

In the case of the famous rhythmic issue in the Scherzo no. The descending scale in a dotted rhythm is a motive that is used to link the opening octave music with the chorale sections. Obscuring this relationship by varying such an essential part of the motive, its rhythm, seems highly unlikely.

Getting led astray by false friends

Paranoid delirium is reversible: For Canetti, all despots and sovereigns behave in a paranoid manner. Under the leadership of the despot, society as a whole enters into a delirium of persecution. It is not a matter of oppression from without, imposed on a free society, but of intrinsic paranoid tendencies which the despot makes real for us.


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  5. In other words, despots feed off our fears before presenting themselves as the solution, and apparently we are stupid enough to submit to them for deliverance. Significantly, their ideas developed in the wake of May They saw their work as a response to the question posed by the psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich: This perversion of collective desire is what we must explore.

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    Paranoia is thus not only a mental pathology which affects some individuals; it is also a form of social thought fed by the uncertainty and distress of modernity. The desire for security is even stronger in that we have fantasized about the calling into question of global capitalism embodied by the World Trade Center towers. Yet it is a fact, and one which can indeed be measured by the emotive violence of all that has been said and written in the effort to dispel it. Since , in light of the creation of an international coalition against terrorism and of the security measures that have been put in place, we have all become, effectively, potential terrorists.

    Six years later, in view of the results obtained, it is difficult not to think that the targets of these security measures were the democratic guarantees of our freedom and not Islamic fundamentalists, who have all too clearly obtained what they were after. No one knows where it will stop, or what turnabouts there may yet be.

    A victory that is visible in the subterranean ramifications and infiltrations of the event—not quite in the direct economic, political, financial slump in the whole of the system—and the resulting moral and psychological downturn—but in the slump of the value system, in the whole ideology of freedom, of free circulation, and so on, on which the Western world prided itself, and on which it drew to exert its hold over the rest of the world. Terrorists are not idiots; they know very well that their actions will unleash repression that will surpass by far their own disruptive methods, but this serves their interests, because state violence justifies their struggle after the fact and swells the ranks of their troops.

    What a symbolic victory for the power of Good! We are faced with a perverse act of masochism: The state takes advantage of the continued presence of terrorism whenever its power and legitimacy are weakened. The fact is that terrorist attacks, in the end, serve the policies put in place by the authorities. In order to thwart this conspiratorial thinking, which deals a blow to all efforts to uncover the truth, it would undoubtedly be wiser to look at the rhetorical strategies of the representatives of political authorities, because they tell us much more about the business of terror than terrorist networks themselves and imaginary plots to seize power.

    In such a context it makes sense to talk, in the manner of Fortes, of "complementary filiation". Where descent is patrilineal a child is linked by complementary filiation to its mother; where descent is matrilineal a child is linked by complementary filiation to its father. But in both these cases the child is linked by filiation equally to both parents. Thus to say, as in Claire Jacobson's text, that the "social organization of the Trobriand Islanders of Melanesia is characterized by matrilineal descent" makes sense; to have said that it is "characterized by matrilineal filiation" would have been nonsense.

    The issue is not just a matter of mistranslation or Anglo-Saxon obtuseness. New York, Basic Books: Error in Translation or Confusion of Ideas? As evidence that Claire Jacobson's translation is, broadly speaking, correct, L'Homme, avr.