Goldschmidt's conclusion that "the M. First, the identification of this cipher in the so- called Fischhof Manuscript being the originally only available copy of Beethoven's lost "Diary" was always doubtful: However, this is not likely, because Beethoven always referred to her as "Toni" like her relatives. More importantly, the very context of this note does not really indicate that the Immortal Beloved was referred to by the phrase "this way with [?
Remember, that it followed after this outcry: Goldschmidt , in the last publication of his life, argued that "A" stands for Amalie Sebald, whom Beethoven may have intended to marry to compensate for his frustration after the encounter with the Immortal Beloved whoever she was — certainly not Amalie. Goldschmidt speculated this to have been a repeat of the episode with Teresa Malfatti two years before to whom Beethoven had proposed after Josephine got married again… Trouble is, Solomon and Goldschmidt are both wrong, simply because this particular letter was most likely not an "A": This was due to the fact that the initial "M" was written suspiciously clearly and apparently with a different handwriting; Tellenbach , p.
He scribbled something in two attempts which was partly a "t", partly something else, like an "A" or an "S" in front of a "t" thus "St"ackelberg.
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So we come to the third of those intriguing initials, "T": However, both "Because of T. Goldschmidt argues convincingly that Therese, Josephine's sister and "go-between" for many years, must have been meant by this. Even though the text hardly arouses any doubts about a direct relationship he had it from a real dilettante, the coffeehouse poet Joseph Ludwig Stoll , one wonders why this young woman who was also good looking did not make it into the long list of — more or less impossible — "Immortal Beloveds".
Indeed, he had to take Kinsky's widow to court, until the matter was settled years later. Ludwig was opposed to this marriage, because Therese was an unmarried mother. He demanded she should leave the house, and he even tried to get the police and the bishop involved! Ludwig's intention was to enforce current police regulations, according to which a person with "immoral conduct" had to leave the city.
But all was in vain, because on 8 November, Johann and Therese married — to the chagrin of Ludwig the moralist who, as it turned out years later, was not entirely wrong in his suspicions, as this unwanted sister-in-law developed adulterous habits…. However, I consider both these alternative scenarios less likely, not only because there is no matching initial that could be assigned, but also because the preceding cry of anguish in the Diary sounds indeed as if it were related to the recent experience with the "Immortal Beloved". Beethoven and Josephine in ". Goldschmidt notes the poem's literary worthlessness the text is just kitschy if not mawkish!
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The autobiographical occasion for its setting to music was that Regina Hitzelberger was one of the best sopranos of her time. From the intimacy of a love song, one would have to infer the composer's affection for the dedicatee singer — but there was no such thing. Instead, Solomon , p. Goldschmidt follows Solomon, assuming that Beethoven had Antonie in mind all the time — as if "To the Beloved" was really to the Beloved! And most likely, she was not interested in the song and its words, but its guitar accompaniment.
Looking just at Beethoven's published works with opus numbers, all but a handful have been dedicated to members of the nobility, and it is clear from the afore- 10 "We emphasize, once again, the fragility of any argument based on Beethoven's dedications. This was also no doubt the case with the so-called "Brentano dedications" there was in fact only 1 explicitly to Antonie — op.
In short, there is no reason to speculate about any "personally" motivated reasons for a dedication — unless it has a wording like "to my beloved xyz". Only, such does not exist. The only exceptions are, of course, the Song "An die Hoffnung" [To Hope] with a secret dedication to Josephine that was not meant to be seen in public and the "Andante favori" enclosed in a love letter to Josephine. Goldschmidt's final verdict on this: Maria Laura Maria Laura was conceived in March in Geneva when Josephine — according to Therese's memoirs — was recovering from a severe illness and subsequently had to "take the baths" in Pisa.
When she returned pregnant in late , her family was not amused. Maria Laura's birth in December was kept secret — up to this day, as all genealogical books and websites dealing with Josephine's second marriage do not mention this, but claim that Maria Laura was born about one year after Theophile born in November , exactly 9 months after the wedding.
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Quite obviously, Stackelberg had a strong "argument" to force this marriage the Brunsvik family did not attend the wedding. This deliberate mix-up rather forgery of birth dates was not known to Goldschmidt, therefore he got lost in various speculations regarding the whereabouts of Josephine and Stackelberg in the Bohemian spas during However, the main result of these investigations is, that at the time, registration in various places was not required for short stays except for foreigners like Stackelberg , so it is pointless to expect a documented presence of Josephine in July However, surprisingly, this one sheet was unquestionably in the handwriting of — Christoph Baron von Stackelberg!
The point here is not only that Therese only too willingly "adopted" Stackelberg's i. Beethoven and Josephine in In February , there was a concert in the Deym villa, with only Beethoven's music, where the composer was also present. Most likely, he met the Brunsvik sisters on that occasion. There is no document about this, except that Beethoven felt compelled to compose the Song Cycle "An die ferne Geliebte" [To the Distant Beloved] the autograph is dated " in the month of April". I just cannot get it out of my mind'. In any case, there is no reason for Beethoven to have been exact regarding the number of years — what he wanted to convey was his still being bound by love to this only one!
On 2 June , Josephine had made an application for a passport, to travel to the spa in "Pirmont" [Pyrmont]. Intriguingly, there was also — years later — an entry by nephew Karl in a conversation book of Beethoven: Beethoven kept his silence. Why Harry Goldschmidt Could Not Accept Josephine After reading this book, one cannot escape the impression that its author had amassed so much evidence in favor of Josephine that at least a tentative decision for her as the most likely "Immortal Beloved" should have been offered.
Again and again, Goldschmidt refers to Antonie as the implicit first choice for this role. His commitment to his friend and mentor Maynard Solomon in this regard is more than obvious. Was it because both were Jews and Marxists? There is a famous painting of Antonie Brentano, with her son Georg and daughter Fanny, by Nikolaus Lauer, made in Solomon published a book about "Marxism and Art", and he is still listed in https: At least subconsciously, this seems to be something one wants to believe even if any evidence for feelings of love or affection between Beethoven and Antonie is missing, on both sides.
What a pure, platonic love, no adultery, nothing "dirty"… a fairy tale! With Josephine, Beethoven scholars had always had their difficulties, even or especially when the "13 Letters" became known. The main reason, even though it is never explicitly admitted: Was there perhaps the thought that Josephine had really seduced17 poor Beethoven on this occasion being for once alone and not chaperoned?
Regarding Goldschmidt, the eye-opener for me occurred on the occasion of the presentation of my book Klapproth at the Beethoven Festival in Vienna18 in June There, one Otto Brusatti told me and the assembled audience, that he had once talked to the late Harry Goldschmidt, who had told him that he considered Josephine to have been a real "Luder" — the German term for "bitch" — with connotations, depending on context, ranging anywhere from "wench" to "whore".
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See also Therese's criticism of her sister in Witschap: A case for decriminalization. The Letters of Beethoven.
The Immortal Beloved Riddle Reconsidered. The Musical Times, Vol. Music Review 54, no. Hyperion offers both CDs, and downloads in a number of formats. The site is also available in several languages. Please use the dropdown buttons to set your preferred options, or use the checkbox to accept the defaults. If a CD is scheduled for re-issue within the next months, the message 'To be reissued on …' will replace the 'Buy Archive CD' button. This service offers a production-quality CDR with printed label, inlay tray card and, at the minimum, a 2pp booklet including cover artwork and complete track listing , packaged in a normal jewel case.
In many instances we will provide complete printed booklets, but please note that this is not always the case. The frontispiece reproduced opposite is an engraving of the opera singer Pauline Anna Milder-Hauptmann. It is of course only one of many almanacs which were available at the time German-speaking countries have always had a penchant for pocket-sized books and it obviously catered for the numerous opera enthusiasts in a town where the in-fighting and scandals of the opera house have always been front-page news.
It is quite possible that Schubert perused a copy of this little almanac in , and in so doing re-lived some of his first crucial opera-going experiences. I like to think of him perhaps not yet as short-sighted as he was later to become poring over the tiny printed names of the famous singers and artists who were his idols in Vienna. Did he wonder whether one of his own works would feature in a later edition and whether he was to meet and know some of the luminaries therein? If so, his hopes were to be rewarded on both counts. Paging through this miniature guide tells one a great deal about artistic life in Vienna at the time.
Two engravings are given over to scenes from successful plays in the preceding season, but the opera thus honoured in a third engraving is Ferdinand Cortez by Gaspare Spontini, a favourite of Napoleon and composer of the celebrated La Vestale. More than twenty years later Fernand Cortez for that is its true title in the onginal French before Castelli translated it into German for Viennese consumption was to inspire the young Richard Wagner. Six people worked full-time in the opera administration, and seventeen ushers were employed.
There were two in-house opera poets Castelli for the German repertory and the celebrated Gaetano Rossi for the Italian , three painters, one costume director, and two theatre doctors. The list of singers still had a majority of German names over Italian something that was to change dramatically in less than a decade , but the great Italian tenor Siboni was on the list he was later to move to Copenhagen where he founded the conservatoire.
She lived in Berlin but visited Vienna on many occasions. The pianist and composer Ignaz Moscheles, then in his late teens, is at the bottom of the list as a music assistant. Joseph Weigl, whose name stood only second to that of Salieri in court circles the acknowledged stature of Beethoven was too lofty to concern itself with establishment appointments , had been a favourite of the Empress Maria Theresa.
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In all probability Schubert attended at least two of these. Their popularity was much aided by the fact that Madame Milder was the star of both operas. Gyrowetz and Drechsler came from Bohemia. The fact is we do not know exactly how many times Schubert went to the opera house. This open-mindedness to the Italian repertoire, and to operas by Italians in the French style, had early beginnings. He must have read them in the score as he could not have seen them. The Italian language, and the words of old Italian librettists like Metastasio conjure up in Schubert a bel canto response, an important ingredient in countless later Lieder where the marriage of German taste and Italian fluidity produces exceptional offspring.