No ordinary man Suzanne Brockmann. Marrying a delacourt Sherryl Woods. Forbidden love Christine Flynn. Shiloh's promise Bj James. Falling for Rachel Landlocked in Manhattan, rugged seaman Zack Muldoon needed a tough, no-nonsense lawyer to save his kid brother's delinquent hide. Winner takes all Nora Roberts. Wife in disguise Susan Mallery. Love potion Jennifer Greene. Protecting the princess Carla Cassidy. Kevin Vaccaro just found out he was a father War with their archrival, the evil Ansara clan, is unavoidable.
Tony Vaccaro had been part of Lili Szabo's life since she was a lovesick teenager with a major-league crush. Courting the enemy Sherryl Woods. The princess's white knight Carla Cassidy. Could he be her little boy?
Can he embrace the child he never knew he had? My dearest cal Sherryl Woods. Expectant bride-to-be Nikki Benjamin.
On pins and needles Victoria Pade. A Pulitzer Prize-Winning Romance Miranda Shaw's world shattered the instant her star pitcher father was accused of cheating and her family was destroyed forever. Finding out he had a six-year-old daughter was the shock of Connor Hayes's life. The cowboy takes a wife Joan Johnston. Charlotte Fagan's unsuccessful attempts to get pregnant had strained her marriage to the breaking point.
Charmed Her legacy had been as much a curse as a blessing, so Anastasia Donovan had learned to keep it hidden. Shy and retiring Tara Browning couldn't believe it.
Firefly in the night Ginger Chambers. The valentine two-step Raeanne Thayne. Anything, any time, any place Lucy Gordon. Had his ship finally come in? For Christopher Trask, it was beginning to look that way. Though his professional life might be a shambles, his Valentine's Day family reunion on the high seas was looking most promising--especially once he met fellow passenger Larkin Hayes. Starting with a kiss Barbara Mcmahon. Rules of play Nora Roberts. He'd do anything for his daughter It had been years since Colin McCarthy was run out of town by Abby Hopewell's wealthy, tyrannical father.
Now he was a single father determined to make a stable home for his little girl. Until a stormy night brought the former bad boy face-to-face with the What had brought Desiree Drummond to his desert land? Sheikh Salah Al Khouri knew the celebrated beauty must have an ulterior motive He'd let her slip from his grasp once, but he wouldn't make the same mistake again. Before the week was out, she would be in his bed. She hadn't known she'd slept with the boss.
But the next morning Jewel Henley learned the exotic stranger who'd swept her off her feet was her new employer, Piers Anetakis. And before she could explain, Jewel found herself without a job After five months Piers had finally tracked d Sheikh's honor Alexandra Sellers. Golden goddess Stephanie James. Hot chocolate honeymoon Cathy Gillen Thacker. Atop the rocky coast of Maine sits the Towers, a magnificent family mansion that is home to a legend of long-lost love, hidden emeralds -- and four sisters determined to save their home against all odds.
Abrasados Por La Pasion: There seems to be a desire to collapse its multiplicity and subtleties into a single profile, despite the many fine studies on individual poets of the era. By returning to a poet who fully participated in modernismo 's currents, but who at the same time maintained a skeptical questioning distance within his work, some fissures that vein the movement can come to light. Leopoldo Lugones exploded part of the masquerade of modernismo with Lunario sentimental, but only to the extent that he brought to the surface some of its latent questions.
Suspicious, in the end, of a kind of urban modemism and of its dislocations, Lugones finally turned his back on change and sealed off the path toward the unknown with tight rhyme and patriotic melodies. This is surely not the direction foreseen by the modernistas, but Lugones' development gives us clues to a way certain ideologies speak through poetic form and poetic movements, and not only in their changing thematics. His voracious consumption of his epoch's poetic trends and his peculiar transformations of them are eloquent testimony of the constraints and possibilities of his cultural and social context.
Much of what seems tedious in modernista poetry for the modern reader is its overloading of rarefied objects, its jewel-studded interior spaces, the amethyst shafts of light that make vision difficult. We find it hard to move around these ornately furnished rooms and especially amidst the heavy-lidded goddesses. While modern taste prefers clean, spare lines, white walls, and open spaces, the modernistas work from a different set of culturally determined preferences. Just as they held a penchant for ornately decorated physical spaces, language itself had to be filled, decorated, and overburdened until it groaned under the excess of sensory paraphernalia.
With rhyme, rhythm, and extended imagistic development, every inch of space was filled, inviting crowding, violence and, ultimately, parody. And this is precisely the process we see in several late modernista poets. Growing agitation, slicing through not only the images but the very contours of the poems themselves, carried modernista innovation to frenzies of linguistic activity.
Dealing with a set of culturally valued icons usually derived from a European, especially French, context, the Spanish American writer has often been seen in a position of dependence. The acceptance of codified images in modernismo for example, the femme fatale, twilights, emphasis on luxury and sonority usually implies acceptance of the whole cultural aura that surrounds these images. One may look for a disruptive or questioning movement on other levels, however.
Yet even in modernista poetry or prose that seems to have a fetishistic fascination with overloading itself with riches from a more highly ranked cultural order, a subversive movement is sometimes triggered by the overloading process, which calls attention to the overabundance within the closed circles of pleasure and excess by making stark contrast with the emptiness surrounding it.
In our desire to show temporal "progress" in poetic development, an anxiety to seek equations between social progression or regression and to see literature as its prophet or mirror, at times we exalt certain stages of poetry because of their explicit commentary on certain political or social movements. It is interesting to note critical appraisals of modernismo and the polemics it has aroused.
Our idea of modernismo often takes on the image of a closed space, an escapist, ivory-tower world or an old trunk full of faded costumes and photos. We see less often its disparity, its violence of language, its fetishistic insistence on the bodily form, and its legacy in more contemporary poetry. For instance, the female figure in modernismo is an object almost at one with the language, heavily decorated, distant and elusive, sometimes spiedon, while the veil of mystery surrounding her is like the web of musicality that encases the poetry.
Mocking irony, the intrusive presence of deflation by social issues and discordant sounds and voices, even in gentle pastoral scenes, cannot be reconciled within this setting. What is most striking in the production of these poets is their violence, a violence turned inward against the grain of language and outward against the usual signs of fulfillment, plenitude, and richness. In general, this plentitude is seen as treasure of physicality, often as stolen treasure.
These poets insist on showing the physicality of the referent, shoving it to the forefront, as well as accentuating the physical nature of the words themselves. Like resistant yet malleable bodies, words are to be used and taken apart. Severo Sarduy, in Escrito sobre un cuerpo, states:. La casa es el lugar del Mismo, la ciudad el del Otro. The home is the place of the Self, the city, [the place of] the Other. Arena of the erotic search; a body waits for us, but the road that leads to it—our word —is almost inexpressible in the excessive codification of city language. A road crowded, erased in the very act of its trace, blind sign on white repetition, without intervals, of the streets.
To create new indices, to conceive surfaces of orientation, completely artificial marks, this is our attitude in the face of the city, this is the explanation of our frenzy of signposting. Only visual perceptions, then, are important. Texts, lights, arrows, keys, posters, that rise up like iconic, authoritative presences; fetishes: Sarduy's remarks, here in the context of a comparison with the Renaissance city, may be set next to Jean Baudrillard's definition of the fetish.
The attention is directed to the surface quality, to the construction process itself, not to the design as a whole. In other words, objects are emptied of their real that is, tangible information of representation, their physical density, and are presented in their signifying sense as signs, as emblems of the process of production. In this sense, their use is like that of objects in the baroque, not valuable for mimetic representation, but for their ability to be read as opposite signs, not straining to build bridges of relation between the objects of images themselves.
In the same way modernismo is striking in its profusion of glittering sign—objects. Perhaps it is this almost fetishistic insistence of overloading signs which has closed it off to so many later readers. Yet these scenes are dismantled time. This distracting or subversive movement does not involve a confrontation of opposites.
We simply see the workings of the backdrop of the machinery. A touch of decor is out of place—something prosaic wanders into a rarefied setting, or the clanking of the rhyme becomes overbearing, drawing too much of our attention. Thus our gaze is distracted by the distancing noise. These moments of hesitation, withdrawal, or suspension serve as equivalents of elision in a sentence, or, as described by Julia Kristeva, of an erasure of the real object of the speaking subject, similar to the process of desemanticization by obscene words or the fragmentation of syntax by rhythm.
With the passage of time we are given a new way to read modernista poems. While working within patches of this modernista discourse, later poets allow us to sense the absences, rather than the accumulations, which make us feel that we are in new territories. The received images that constitute our repertoire for viewing the productions of modernismo allow us to see them in a different light from their contemporaries. And it is precisely through the works of those poets who drew most heavily from them that the movement in modernismo itself can be felt.
By postmodernista rejections, exaggerations, and parings-down of modernismo 's stock images and procedures, we can trace the shifting points of view that were already present in the construction of modernismo 's seemingly fixed scenes. If we consider the procedures of enclosure or binding in modernista poetry to be part of the exaltation of objects, of landscape scenes, of the female figure, and of decorative form, then our reading must also take into account our own fetishization of this production. By freezing it in time, by surrounding it with rites of previous and current criticism, modernismo becomes a useful object, a museum piece or point of reference.
Just as luxury can point out poverty, or monstrosity normality, a limited view of modernismo has restricted our sense of its power in our readings of later poets. If order is a necessary precondition for transgression or for vice, these static landscapes and enclosed gardens, which seem to offer the reader a single, directed point of view, in effect are engineered for more possibilities. Their stillness contains a slight wayward movement or distracting gesture that destabilizes the entire backdrop.
The metaphor of eroticism as one of the bases for inquiry is not merely a descriptive scheme. The body, as origin and object of desire, is constantly given to us, sometimes as a lavishly decorated spectacle, other times as a mutilated scrap heap. As one looks closer, this same insistence on dismantling the erotic image is reflected in the framing picture of these prized icons.
Things will not stand still under the poetic gaze. Margins are always dissolving, and fin de siglo props are being undermined by the intrusion of off-key elements. These poems are strategic, outflanking readers by beating them in the distancing game through means of more and more elaborate schemes and of towering lookout points of internal commentary.
The tear Lugones made in modernismo 's fabric of social and sexual dynamics is still being rewoven by contemporary poets. Lugones' intrusiveness created a lingering discordance, and no amount of dispassionate criticism can gloss over the uneasy spaces he created.
- Seduccion En Las Dunas : Alexandra Sellers : .
- Nelli’s Journey: From the Depths of Evil to Reconciliation and Beyond.
- Engineering the Space Age: A Rocket Scientist Remembers - Aeronautical Engineering, Missiles, ICBMs, Manned Spacecraft, Mercury, Gemini, Space Shuttle, McDonnell Aircraft, Cyclogiro!
- Sheikh's Betrayal (Silhouette Desire) - Alexandra Sellers;
- Crack the Codeword 1: 48 Brain Teasing Puzzles to Improve Your Logic and Increase Your Word Power!
- Letters from a Cracked Head!
The subversive shifts and overt disavowals they make of a veiled authoritative order are the weapons they use in dismantling hierarchical form, including a realignment of the speaking subject. They are not simply naive consumers of European influences. Each in his own way plots a path to lead the reader to question even the poetic forms that tradition supplies. Lugones' dramatic confrontation with the upheavals of his times, with the disintegration of accustomed literary exchange the pact between writer and complicit initiated reader is ech-.
Devouring several genres at once, lurching back and forth between extremes, Lugones dramatizes the conflict between modernismo 's formalism and the shift into the twentieth century's more private sense of poetic language. Still striving to preserve a mythic framework for poetry, which presupposes an underlying order or ultimate frame of reference, the dynamism of his work prefigures new rearrangements. Later poets find themselves with the task of reassembling fragments of symbolic structures, of a previous poetic heritage, now devalued as bearers of intention.
Lugones' uneven experiments point the way for a revolution in poetic language. All language, not excluding that of liberty, ends up becoming a prison, and there is a point at which velocity becomes confused with immobility. The great modernista poets were the first to rebel, and in their mature works they go beyond the language that they themselves have created.
In this way they prepare, each one in his own. Paz, in his now classic study of modern poetry, Los hijos del limo, continues his distinction between the two great poets of modernismo. The ironic note, voluntarily antipoetic and therefore more intensely poetic, appears precisely in the noontime of modernismo [ Cantos de vida y esperanza, ] and appears almost always associated with the image of death. With Lugones, Laforgue penetrates Hispanic poetry: Along with poetic techniques, Paz also compares the natures of both poetic movements, modernismo and vanguardismo, in their initial stages.
Although both movements were first tied to their European, especially French, models, each movement turned later toward native or American sources. In its first moment, the Spanish American vanguard depended on the French, just as before the first modernistas had followed the Parnassians and the Symbolists.
The rebellion against the new cosmopolitanism assumed again the form of "nativism" or "Americanism. How can it be that modernismo, a movement first celebrated as well as attacked for its audacity and claims to spiritual transformation, now is seen as a series of artifacts in a museum, relics of a deadened, almost asocial language?
Seduccion En Las Dunas : (seduction in the Dunes)
The paradoxical nature of the claims of modernismo —its espousal of anarchic and egalitarian principles along with an aristocratic claim to power in language—are not so paradoxical as they seem. Although its poets often used the languages of both mysticism and politics, suppressing their inherent contradictions, their goals were generally directed toward a revolution of personal expression, seen in conflict with an authoritarian state of language itself. Much of the attraction of the forbidden fruit of modernismo is lost to us now. As readers removed from the space of dangerous pleasure by the passage of time and the presence of new surprises, it is sometimes difficult to understand the uproar and scandal that moments of the poetic works of Leopoldo Lugones evoked.
However, we can recreate some sense of understanding by following the traces of this poetry in works more accessible to us. Although the influence of Lugones and of his contemporary Herrera y Reissig is evident in these poets and even in the. The elements of rarefaction, the flaunting of excess and riches, as well as a heavily loaded surface of verbal texture were in great part a reaction to what they saw as the poverty of their circumstantial reality.
If the modernistas remain unforgiven, it is neither for their luxury nor their abundance. The extravagance of style, the heaping up of exotic detail, is surely no sin. It is the self-containment or exclusiveness that offends. The poets of modernismo shut the door to their garden of delights. Invited in were only the initiates, those who knew the secret codes to decipher the mysterious rites of the poetic process.
Like the preceding generation who flaunted their wealth by the ritual trip to Europe, thereby making more visible the poverty of those left behind, so the modernistas, rich only in knowledge, separated themselves from others by their European voyage of reading and reworking the treasures they brought back.
In the same way they viewed what surrounded them as an impoverished state. This is the true insult of the excesses of modernismo. The discordant element appears to be banished. Severo Sarduy described this same movement of excess and expulsion of dissonance in the Baroque:. The horror of the vacuum expels the subject from the surface of the multiplying extension, to signal in its place the specific code of a symbolic practice. In the Baroque, poetry is a Rhetoric: The fixed scene cannot afford dissenting or distracting movement within its confines, and the perspective of the viewer must remain fixed also.
Even more pleasurable is the recognition of a fragment from a text by D'Annunzio, signaling perversity and rarefaction not permitted to the masses, whose limitations moral, social, or educational prohibit them from penetrating into the inner sanctum. Just as the paintings of Gustave Moreau and the Pre-Raphaelites are made increasingly grotesque by later exaggerations and transformations one thinks of the details in paintings by Klimt and the sadistic touches Munch added to his erotic goddesses , so the excesses of the forbidden fruit of modernismo are packed so closely together that they begin to decompose.
The spirit of play takes on its darker side. Just as abundance creates poverty by contrast, so frivolity invites its lurking counterpart. Lost among the excesses of the textual surface, the speaking or acting subject reasserts itself with a gesture that draws our attention outside the static scene. The works of both Lugones and Herrera y Reissig show the marks of this intrusiveness into the enclosure of preciosity and abundance. Borges points out the traits that separate the works of modernismo from the tastes of later readers:.
En escritores ulteriores—en Armando Vasseur y paladinamente en Herrera y Reissig adquiere un don de ejemplaridad y los conceptos se entrelazan con un sentido semejante al de los ramajes trabados. El estilo mismo arborece y es hasta excesiva su fronda. Up until now, however, the tree has only been treated as the subject of description.
In later writers—in Armando Vasseur and openly in Herrera y Reissig—it acquires the gift of exemplar, and concepts intertwine like knitted branches. The style itself branches out and its foliage is even excessive. Despite our admiration, is not this vehement showiness which covers Los parques abandonados by chance intimately foreign to us, men of the pampa and straight paths?
Here he uses a graphic corporal analogy of wounding and scars:. El tiempo las cancela y la que antes brillaba como una herida se oscurece taciturna como una cicatriz. The mistake of the poet [and of the symbolists who counseled him] was in believing that already prestigious words constitute the lyric act in themselves. They are a short cut and nothing more. Time cancels them, and what shone before like a wound darkens quietly like a scar.
- Une époque formidable (French Edition).
- My Shopping Bag.
- Pants Off Salmon?
Even more clearly for the discussion of modernismo at hand, Borges continues by pointing up the static pictorial quality of. This visual undertaking was joined to a stubborn desire for isolation, a prejudice against becoming personal. It polished up the images; it sealed its lips to the diction of ancient beauty; it put crushing weights of gold on the world.
In verse it searched for pictorial preeminence, it made of the sonnet a scene for the passionate dialogue of the flesh. As it was then for Borges, it is the programmatic and derivative aspects of modernismo which still puzzle many readers. How could a movement that espoused the romantic principles of spiritual liberty, access to the sublime through synesthetic experiments of sound, color, and rhythm, be best known today for its formalism, for its sometimes grotesque exaggeration of the iconography of French Parnassian, symbolist, and decadent styles?
The modernistas were seemingly shameless in the appropriation of the iconic symbols of all things exotic or distant. The very formalism of the verse form, enriched to saturation, distances the modern reader by its practiced theatricality. Critics rarely treat the movement of modernismo for its intrinsic value. Its worth is measured instead by a series of resemblances—its differences from previous and subsequent changes in poetic practice. Yet modernismo is, quite distinctly, a movement, a self-identified and coherent esthetic program, despite its internal variations.
Though the term avant-garde is applied to a later generation, the modernista quasi-militarist language and messianic claims for their work leave no doubt as to the movement's coherent purpose. Renato Poggioli discusses the militaristic and apocalyptic terminology adopted by avant-garde movements in The Theory of the Avant-Garde: Avant-garde deformation, for all that the artists who practice it define it as antitraditional and anticonventional, also becomes a.
In this way, deformation fulfills not only a contrasting, but also a balancing, function in the face of the surviving conventions, academic and realistic, of traditional art. The deformation is determined by a stylistic drive, which inaugurates a new order as it denies the ancient order. Modernismo has most often been seen as a movement of dependence, as a group of poets who looked to Europe, especially France, as a source of inspiration. Many have even seen this movement as a trend based in imitation, as mere translation from one literary culture into another. An examination of the nature of information transmission from one culture to another, however, as well as from one language to another, can help in understanding the specific patterns of transmission of poetic traditions.
Given the developments in linguistics and semiology in recent decades, the study of a phenomenon such as modernismo can find methods with which to examine this transposition of literary patterns from one culture to another, taking into account extraliterary codes as parallel ways of enlarging our perspectives. Even the simplest formulation as the dichotomy langue code, grammar, system as opposed to parole speech, usage is especially relevant to a study of poetic transmission. The use of these terms, along with other concepts, will provide a basis for examining the poetic language of modernismo in its transmission and transformations.
In modernismo we see the collision of several aesthetic codes at once. The transmission from emitter to receptor is not direct, however—the message does not necessarily remain intact in its transmission. Receptive factors, such as comprehension of a foreign language accuracy of translation , completeness or incompleteness of texts, cultural factors audience, possibilities for publication are essential factors to consider in the reception of the emitted message.
In the case of artistic texts, the transmission is even more complex. Literature is not an isolable commodity. It shares various functions in a given epoch and cul-. It is clear that differing opinions about modernistas are not rooted exclusively in the message content they bear nor even in the particular form rhythm, meter, rhyme that shapes content. Although the modernistas were first attacked for their audacity in breaking the traditional rules, within a decade they were scorned by vanguardista poets for their adherence to rigid form.
Surely, cultural and artistic contexts alter not only the transmission of fixed message content but its recpetion as well. It is this reception or reading of texts in different contexts that produces "aberrant" texts or misreadings. These same variations of reception can be of profound importance for the generation of new texts. A look at the pictorial qualities of modernista verse can clarify some puzzling issues.
As Pierre Bourdieu suggests,  the way we design our living spaces reflects and determines our ways of ordering the metaphors by which we live. In the modernistas ' eagerness to fill up space with the treasures of a more highly valued culture do they not also implant in these scenes a seed of doubt? At what point does gentle mocking of their borrowed wares become overt parody? Any history of the evaluation of poetic modernismo in Spanish America would constitute in itself a history of social and esthetic values of this century.
Although the modern critic does not expect consensus on the relative worth of a particular work nor even dare to prescribe definitive standards for what constitutes an exclusively "literary" work, modernismo is still strongly associated with "dependence. Criticism can reflect a society's ideas about itself, and much recent criticism reflects modernismo 's own self-questioning. With the nineteenth century's emphasis on the idea of romantic "genius," of the specially selected transmitter of spiritual energy or revelations, the classical division of public and private languages breaks down.
And to a large degree, the stability of genre is shaken. The late nineteenth century refuses even more the notion of writer as public spokesperson, either as legitimizer or adversary—critic of society. One has only to think of the role of poet—statesman in early nineteenth-century Spanish America to see the contrast with the generation of modernistas.
The emphasis on interiority and personal expression even fragments the idea of the author or the book concept. The individual writer is seen on personal terms, and the concept of a coherent work gives way to fragmentary expression. As personal consciousness rather than social or ethical norms becomes increasingly the organizing principle, the individual style itself acquires new functions.
If the frame of reference is personal consciousness and individuality, then style must allow for personal idiosyncrasy, even invention or destruction of genre. If we read these works of modernismo as clues. Except for the clearly defined stance of those who take the adversary role to a certain power group as is the case in protest literature , even national literatures receive ongoing evaluations and reassimilations.
In this vein, a general tendency in Spanish American criticism has been to lump together all modernista writers under the label "rubenista" and to assume that the enclosure of the rich poetic forms of modernismo were prisons from which more recent poets have needed to liberate themselves. Although countless studies have pointed out the many styles, sources, and individual patterns of modernista poets, the survival of a facile critical grouping is difficult to overcome. In "What Is an Author? Texts, books, and discourses really begin to have authors other than mythical, "sacralized" and "sacralizing" figures to the extent that authors became subject to punishment, that is, to the extent that discourses could be transgressive.
Perhaps it is time to study discourses not only in terms of their expressive value or formal transformations, but according to their modes of existence. The modes of circulation, valorization, attribution, and appropriation of discourses vary with each culture and are modified within each. The manner in which they are articulated according to social relationships can be more readily understood, I.
Other Books in This Series
In short, it is a matter of depriving the subject or its substitute of its role as originator, and of analyzing the subject as a variable and complex function of discourse. The movement of modernismo, which is usually chronologically delineated between the years and , has been credited with revitalizing the Spanish poetic idiom by means of three major contributions: This type of criticism centers on the rebellious aspects of the movement, its attempt to break away from the models and archetypes of Spain and the colonial heritage.
Variously called torremarfilismo, cosmopolitismo, or decadentismo, the movement of modernismo has been criticized as an aberrant faction of escapist writers who would not accept their immediate environment nor reflect it in their poetry. Less attention has been focused on the reasons for the conscious attempt to join another order of writers, however, an order more far-reaching than their present one. The innovations of modernismo are based on the modernistas ' widening awareness of their dependence, both economic and cultural, on traditional and European models and their decision to fill the cultural vacuum resulting from this dependence.
Their innovations arose from a necessity of invention. Having become aware of the smaller sphere of action accorded to the writer, they sought to reclaim the lost importance and to develop a different role for the poet. In the same manner, their rebellious attitude manifested itself in a willful transgression of the public norm and its tastes. Their rebellion united them in a common purpose, with an emphasis on virtuosity and individual expression. An important element in defining the goals of the modernistas is the examination of the.
A look at their social and economic position can clarify the reasons for their decisions.
During the last part of the nineteenth century the major cities in Spanish America, especially Buenos Aires and Mexico City, were assimilating European movements at an accelerated pace. The transmission was manifold and simultaneous, and the proliferation of new ideas and styles—in the sciences, in the arts, and in literature—constantly thrust a choice upon the intellectuals. In part, the adoption of a style inaccessible to a large public was a reaction against the narrow range of roles assigned to the writer.
With the diversification of society, due in large part to massive European immigration and growing industrialization,  there was no longer an absolute identification between the ruling classes and the intellectual. New immigration, varying degrees of industrialization, and labor-oriented social movements changed the maps of Spanish American cities in the early twentieth century.
As the poet was thrust into the marketplace for example, journalism and adoption of new "marketing" techniques , so poetry would follow its poets into turbulent urban spaces. At the same time that modernismo as a poetic movement is flowering, poets and intellectuals are calling for an upheaval of old traditions.
In his "Discurso en el Politeama" of he calls for the overthrow of the old order:. In this work of reconstitution and vengeance we cannot count on the men of the past: We want new trees to give new flowers and fruit! Old ones to the tomb, young ones to the task! Modernismo 's emphasis on the ideal of an intellectual, and not necessarily an economic, aristocracy was part of a persistent search to create a new role for artists in a society whose hierarchies were being dissolved. As professional roles became more specialized, the role of the intellectual was also being reduced.
No longer a sideline activity in addition to other professional ones, writing was becoming a specialized occupation, although a financially precarious one. Literary and social critics such as Walter Benjamin and Michel Foucault have provided cogent explanations for the elevation of art to a religious discipline in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
With the advent of photography and other means of reproduction, literature seemed to be losing its hold on the quasi-mystical role assigned to the artist. The rising demands of egalitarian social movements also threatened to displace the artist's rank. A cult of writing was aroused to restore confidence in literature as a separate reality, rather than as a range of styles, interchangeable and therefore dispensable.
Poets were to be interpreters of a medium that offered mystical insights. Attention to the techniques of such a discipline was therefore of the highest importance. Several studies in Spanish America have been especially influential in their examination of the changes in the writer's status and the impact of these changes of poetic practice.
Among the critics who have interpreted the nature of this artistic as well as social phenomenon, some have concentrated more on the socioeconomic aspect of its web, while others have sought its secrets in the rich texture of surging aesthetic theories and practices current in Europe at the time. The analyses of Rama and Paz point up the two complementary aspects. There is here a primary proof, so general, that it was a commonplace of the last two decades of the century: Yet even to speak of markets, machines, and modernization in terms of the artist hardly brings forth the image of the hurried businessman—writer.
As Rama points out, "Por el momento, el 'mercado' literario no exist??? The book market is completely paralyzed, which naturally is reflected in literary activity, extremely scarce, which has had to take refuge almost exclusively in the press. La Revista Nacional has been the first periodical in Buenos Aires that has paid its contributors, thus demonstrating that it was time for productions of genius to be valued for what they were worth, to facilitate the advent of professional writers, the only ones who can give us our own literature.
Striking is his description of the magical practice involved in pushing out the daily passages, as if the heightened speed of' market rhythm increased the flow of' creative power. He not only explains the economic necessity of working with periodicals but praises it as a new source of' inspiration. Writing about commonplace events provides practice for less mundane efforts:.
You know about the struggle of the man of letters, everywhere atrocious or martyred, but nowhere as in these societies of Latin America, where even the soul feels its way about, and intellectual speculation has almost no place. You have had a good field for experience, and that is the daily newspaper. I have heard it maligned and depicted as the tomb of the poets. Well, if continued work on different topics doesn't make us agile and flexible in thought and in speech, what then will? It is clear, despite his attachment to the ideals of the superiority of beauty, that the changing sounds and rhythms entered his perception.
The dependence on Europe by the financial and social elite had also led to a devaluing of local productions of all kinds. In the case of literary production and outlets for publication, the lack of faith in local writers resulted in little financial support for their efforts. In Argentina, for example, publishers cited the scarcity of national literary works of quality and the absence of a large reading public as reasons for promoting mostly foreign works. Paul Groussac, when introducing the influential journal La Biblioteca in , describes the attitude he wished to counter with the creation of his new publication:.
Seducción en las dunas
It has been said to us, on the one hand, that we will not find in Argentina the necessary amount of contributions to fill monthly the pages of a great journal, lacking among ourselves the necessary. The devaluing of local writers and of the public in general was heightened by the financial crisis of the last decade of the nineteenth century. Publishers found it more convenient and less costly to copy foreign works for which they did not have to pay royalties, and they were assured of a readership by the already established fame of major European writers:.
Seduccion En Las Dunas: Description Revivieron la pasion con mas fuerza que nuncaQue habia llevado a Desiree Drummond a aquellas tierras deserticas? Salah al Khouri sabia que la famosa modelo debia de tener un motivo oculto. Antes de que terminara la semana, la haria suya. La desesperacion habia llevado a Desi de vuelta a Salah. Y, aunque el hombre que la miraba con esos ojos tan frios era muy diferente del joven que habia amado, se mantuvo firme en su objetivo. Tenia que impedir el matrimonio concertado de Salah a toda costa.