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To what extent do they follow them? Why do you say that? How could this be improved? What should physicians be doing to address this? Which drugs should be used more, why? Which drugs should be used less, why? The objective is to innovate with new, less technocratic ways to analyze poverty, helping to reshape ideas around the world about the nature and the dimensions of poverty. These have been studied without taking into account those who are living in this situations, with the analysis being ruled only by monetary conditions.

This project aims to reshape the worlwide idea about the nature and the dimentions of poverty, while spreading awareness about the life of people in poverty, allowing this knowledge to be studied and understood by practiciens social spheres professionals and the general public. In order to do so, the project will transmit experiences, opinions and reflections by those who live in poverty, both in a cultural context and diverse developement to those responsible of international politics.

Likewise, the project will inspire all participants to work and think together, putting aside any social and educational frontiers. There were mainly two reasons for my embarking on this little tour. My acquaintance with El Greco had begun early, when I was still very much in my teens.

Perhaps the closest I got to El Greco at this time, in purely visual terms, was when I saw, in the window of a bookshop in Torquay, a folio art book that was open at a full page colour plate of one of his paintings — a painting in which two richly clad ecclesiastics supported, between them, the body of a man in black armour, while behind was a row of white-ruffed faces and above Christ, the Virgin Mary, and all the host of heaven.

It was the famous Burial. But though I was acquainted with El Greco only at second hand, and even then only to a very limited extent, there must have been something about the man and his work that fascinated me greatly, for the novel I wrote in my eighteenth year contained descriptions of his paintings, and of those of no other artist. A year later I found myself in the East, where I remained for twenty years and where I had no opportunity of furthering my acquaintance with El Greco, even at second hand.

During the late eighties I in fact visited Spain several times, but it was only in the autumn of that I could devote two weeks to the monuments of Moorish civilization and the paintings of El Greco. By a happy accident, we arrived just after opening time and there were only a couple of dozen people in the small, uncluttered chapel that housed the famous painting.

Before long we found places on one of the benches in front of the altar, above which the Burial was displayed, and so were able to sit contemplating it for as long as we wished. I shall stay with The Burial of Count Orgaz. Not that I shall attempt to describe the painting or even give a general account of it. I shall stay with it only to the extent of making a single point. The result, as one might have expected, is that he has quite a lot to say about it after all. The unresolved breaking into two halves is caused by that much-vaunted line of heads which is one of the glories of the work but which in its excellence creates a problem that El Greco could not surmount.

The faulty angel is poorly designed, poorly placed, and poorly executed, which is curious, since El Greco used the same device with success in other paintings. The point I want to make relates to what Michener considers the poor organization of the work, in particular his allegation that the line of heads breaks the picture into two unrelated halves, an upper and a lower, and this creates a problem that El Greco could not surmount. But is The Burial of Count Orgaz in fact broken into two halves? It also fails to do justice to the fact that the painting is held together as much by colour as by design.

The painting could in fact be described as a symphony in grey-andwhite and gold, on a ground of black, varied here and there — in the upper half especially, with notes of purple and red. In terms of abstract design the painting is held together by the fact that the figures of Christ, the Virgin Mary, St John the Baptist, and the angel, in the upper half of the painting, form a mandorla, and that this mandorla has a common axis with the sphere formed by the figures of St Stephen and St Augustine directly underneath, in the lower half of the painting.

Far from being badly organized, as Michener claims, The Burial of Count Orgaz is extremely well organized, with both colour and design contributing to the welding of the various figures and forms of the painting into one uniform pattern. Nor is that all. Looking at the line of heads, one notices a number of things about them. Including the heads of the two friars and the two priests, there are altogether twenty-five of them, not all of which are fully visible.

Some of the heads are portraits of contemporaries, as Michener tells us; one of them may even depict El Greco himself. This head is on the same axis as the mandorla, in the upper half of the painting, and the sphere, in the lower, and occupies the space between the bottom of the one and the top of the other.

Mandorla and sphere are thus joined together by a second, much smaller, mandorla. What does this mean? Why does the head occupy the position in the line — and in the painting — that it does?

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In order to answer these questions we shall have to study the head itself more closely. It is the head of a young man. The young man is handsome, even beautiful. His ruff-surrounded face, which is fully visible, is perhaps a shade less beautiful than that of the even younger-looking St Stephen who, in contrast to the wrinkled, white-bearded St Augustine, appears in the very bloom of youth.

But then St Stephen has come down from heaven in order to help bury Count Orgaz: The unknown young man, on the other hand, belongs to the earth. Or rather, he belongs partly to earth and partly to heaven, which is perhaps what gives him his pensive, almost melancholy expression. Because he belongs partly to earth and partly to heaven he belongs to both earth and heaven, and because he belongs to both he is the means by which they are joined together. He is the means by which they are joined together and he is beautiful. They are held together by its underlying philosophy because, in that philosophy, it is beauty that holds together the two halves of the universe — beauty that holds together heaven and earth.

Earthly love is the love of earthly things, while heavenly love is the love of the things of heaven. The soul ascends from earth to heaven as it learns to love the things of heaven more than the things of earth, and it loves the things of heaven more than the things of earth as it perceives the greater beauty of the things of heaven, earthly beauty being but the faint, distorted reflection of heavenly beauty in the mirror of sense. As Diotima explains to Socrates: The man who would pursue the right way to this goal must begin, when he is young, by applying himself to the contemplation of physical beauty, and, if he is properly directed by his guide, he will first fall in love with one particular beautiful person and beget noble sentiments in partnership with him.

Later he will observe that physical beauty in any person is closely akin to physical beauty in any other, and that, if he is to make beauty of outward form the object of his quest, it is great folly not to acknowledge that the beauty exhibited in all bodies is one and the same; when he has reached this conclusion he will become a lover of all physical beauty, and will relax the intensity of his passion for one particular person, because he will realize that such a passion is beneath him and of small account.

The next stage is for him to reckon beauty of soul more valuable than beauty of body; the result will be that, when he encounters a virtuous soul in a body which has little of the bloom of beauty, he will be content to love and cherish it and to bring forth such notions as may serve to make young people better; in this way he will be compelled to contemplate beauty as it exists in activities and institutions, and to recognize that here too all beauty is akin, so that he will be led to consider physical beauty taken as a whole a poor thing in comparison.

From morals he must be directed to the sciences and contemplate their beauty also, so that, having his eyes fixed upon beauty in the widest sense, he may no longer be the slave of a base and mean-spirited devotion to an individual example of beauty, whether the object of his love be a boy or a man or an activity, but, by gazing upon the vast ocean of beauty to which his attention is now turned, may bring forth in the abundance of his love of wisdom many beautiful and magnificent sentiments and ideas, until at last, strengthened and increased in stature by this experience, he catches sight of one unique science whose object is the beauty of which I am about to speak.

This beauty is first of all eternal; it neither comes into being nor passes away, neither waxes nor wanes; next, it is not beautiful in part and ugly in part, nor beautiful at one time and ugly at another, nor beautiful in this relation and ugly in that, nor beautiful here and ugly there, as varying according to its beholders; nor again will this beauty appear to him like the beauty of a face or hands or anything else corporeal, or like the beauty of a thought or a science, or like beauty which has its seat in something other than itself, be it a living thing or the earth or the sky or anything else whatever; he will see it as absolute, existing alone with itself, unique, eternal, and all other beautiful things as partaking of it, yet in such a manner that, while they come into being and pass away, it neither undergoes any increase or diminution nor suffers any change.

When a man, starting from this sensible world and making his way upward by a right use of his feeling of love for boys, begins to catch sight of that beauty, he is very near his goal. In comparison with the nymphs, Nanda declares, his ex-girlfriend is like a scalded she-monkey with her nose and ears lopped off, the nymphs being infinitely more lovely and beautiful and alluring. That the underlying philosophy of the Burial is broadly Platonic does not necessarily mean that El Greco has read Plato. In any case he would have had to read him either in the original Classical Greek or in Latin, complete Greek editions having been published in Venice and Paris and Latin versions in Florence and Paris Not that El Greco needed to read Plato in order to be influenced by him.

Since the Renaissance Platonism had been in the air, like a delicate perfume, and though it was Florence and not Venice that was, or had been, the great centre of Platonic studies, it is not unlikely that during his sojourn in the city of the Doges El Greco should have breathed in some particles of the Platonic essence. To him it was self-evident that there existed a higher, spiritual world and that the right contemplation of human beauty was a means of access to that world.

Which brings us back to the head of the unknown young man. It is not just that the head joins together the two halves of the painting, or that the young man is beautiful. El Greco seems to want to emphasize these facts. But what of the gold-robed angel himself? What I can say, in the light of my previous observations on the painting, is that the angel neither succeeds nor fails in his mission of uniting the upper and lower halves of the picture. He neither succeeds nor fails because it is not his mission to unite them. The two halves of the painting are united by the head of the young man.

It is the young man, not the angel, who is the intermediary between heaven and earth, and he is the intermediary between them because he is beautiful and because, in the underlying philosophy of the Burial, it is with the right contemplation of human beauty that the soul commences its ascent from earth to heaven. The figure of the angel is therefore not poorly placed at all. When Michener looked at the Burial he should have noticed this.

What he ought to have asked himself was whether the artist was, in fact, using the same device in the Burial as in other paintings, that is, using the figure of the angel to unite the upper and lower halves of the picture. But we have not quite finished with the angel. Though it is not his mission to unite the two halves of the picture — to join together heaven and earth — he does have a function.

The Virgin Mary looks down in compassion, while St John the Baptist and the other saints, as well as sundry angels and blessed spirits, intercede for it with Christ. All this is in full accordance with Catholic Christian teaching. The answer to the question is to be found in the Symposium. Earlier in their conversation, before her great speech on the ascent from the contemplation of physical beauty to the knowledge of absolute beauty, Diotima tells Socrates that the function of love is to procreate in what is beautiful, and that such procreation can be either physical or spiritual.

Procreation, she says, is the nearest thing to perpetuity and immortality that a mortal being can attain. If you ask what that progeny is, it is wisdom and virtue in general; of this all poets and such crafts men as have found out some new thing may be said to be begetters; but far the greatest and fairest branch of wisdom is that which is concerned with the due ordering of states and families, whose name is moderation and justice.


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When by divine inspiration a man finds himself from his youth up spiritually pregnant with these qualities, as soon as he comes of due age he desires to bring forth and to be delivered, and goes in search of a beautiful environment for his children; for he can never bring forth in ugliness. In his pregnant condition physical beauty is more pleasing to him than ugliness, and if in a beautiful body he finds also a beautiful and noble and gracious soul, he welcomes the combination warmly, and finds much to say to such a one about virtue and the qualities and actions which mark a good man, and takes his education in hand.

By intimate association with beauty embodied in his friend, and by keeping him always before his mind, he succeeds in bringing to birth the children of which he has been long in labour, and once they are born he shares their upbringing with his friend; the partnership between them will be far closer and the bond of affection far stronger than between ordinary parents, because the children that they share surpass human children by being immortal as well as more beautiful.

Everyone would prefer children such as these to children after the flesh. The page holds in his left hand a torch, symbolizing mortality, the flame of the torch being echoed by the flames of the torches at either end of the row of heads, as well as by the vertical arms of the red Maltese crosses? This is only a speculation, but it is a speculation fully in accordance with the underlying philosophy of the painting. When he looked at the canvas Michener looked not so much with a fresh eye as with a raw eye.

Perhaps I, too, would find hidden beauties that had escaped me on my previous visit. In which case there might be another Note. Si se incluyen las cabezas de los dos frailes y de los dos monjes, hay en total unas veinticinco cabezas, pero no todas se pueden visualizar completamente. Sin embargo, entre la cabeza del monje y del sacerdote, hay una cabeza en una altura ligeramente superior a la de ellos. Como la belleza misma, el amor es tanto celestial como terrenal. El amor terrenal es el amor a las cosas de la Tierra, y el amor celestial es el amor a las cosas del Cielo. Es preciso, en efecto, que quien quiera ir por el recto camino a ese fin comience desde joven a dirigirse hacia los cuerpos bellos.

Pues esta es justamente la manera correcta de acercarse a las cosas del amor o de ser conducido por otro: Esto nos lleva de vuelta a la cabeza del joven desconocido. El conocimiento y cualquier otra virtud, de las que precisamente son procreadores todos los poetas y cuantos artistas se dice que son inventores. En ese caso, pueden esperar otra apostilla a este cuadro. Sangharakshita in Seminar General field: There may also be one or two people who are not named above who were present for the discussions. Ah, so what have we here?

I am going to start off with the longest question, because probably it is going to get the shortest reply! We may have supplementaries of course. I think the attitude of that - who was he? So it seems almost a sort of totalitarian approach. Unless your inspiration comes from sources of which we approve, or which we think appropriate. Because well it is not even a question of your inspiration coming from artists, it might just come directly from nature.

Sometimes artists are inspired directly by nature, at least sometimes. Whether in the visual arts or anywhere else. Preferably female of course [Laughter]. So I think this is really quite shocking, the prescriptive nature of the statement. They are not interested in the student himself, his interests, potential, of course his particular inspiration. They are interested in using the student to pursue their own particular agendas.

It seems to be a facultyoriented art research project probably, where the student is perhaps just a regrettable necessity. You teach as a means of earning a living while you get on with your own work. So your students have to be subordinated to your project. Can you really learn from an artist by whom you are not at least moved, if not inspired? It suggests that learning from another artist is just a question almost of technical expertise. Or have I got it completely wrong? I think probably what he meant was that one could draw on general lessons from the past.

Because I say it is not just a question of learning general lessons from them. If they are great artists, even of the past you are inspired by them if you are at all sensitive. So if anyone continues down along that road, well getting more and more contemporary and less and less inspired by the past, and losing all sense of tradition, well I am afraid you will end up with a rather dreadful cul-de-sac.

In fact I think some contemporary artists are already there, very much so, from what I can judge. Those that I read about in the papers anyway. It seems also a very narrow view of the teacher as well. Ibsen said that an artist is always fifty years ahead of his time. Yes, I think you are more likely to be ahead of your time if you are inspired by the past, paradoxically. Any comments on this whole issue from those who have some experience of art schools? I would have thought that his point was rhetorical rather than literal. Which is what at A level or O levels of education you do get taught styles from this period or that period, and so when people come into higher education they come in with the sort of idea of how art should be made, which is conditioned by, or which is determined by what was done in the 19th century or the 's.

I think the point is a fair one although overblown, that you should make work that does reflect the fact that you live in this society now. And he seems to be precluding that, quite literally. Has it just had its time? Why should one be contemporary? Or what is contemporary? Does contemporary mean what is produced now or does it mean what is produced in a certain style which has been labelled contemporary in the sense that it has no precedent in history? I think that the idea if you paint in a certain But does the artist have to address questions in that sort of way, necessarily?

Was it wrong in the Victorian period for some people to try to escape from the contemporary world, from industrial civilisation, and to depict another world which was for many people more inspiring? Do you have to depict a Lowry sort of world, all factories and little stick people? That has a place, no doubt. But is there not room for dreams and visions in art? But what I always thought as a more creative response would be to envision a world which was possible.

So the sort of idea of the Pureland, you make representations of the Pureland, even if it may not be literally possible, you can imagine a world that you could sort of strive towards as the kind of embodiment of ideals.

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Yes, but did anybody in the Victorian period, even the Pre-Raphaelites, believe that the world that they were representing in their paintings, their typical paintings, represented a world which was achievable or did they not mean it to represent a world which existed in some other dimension and it represented an ideal in a very general sort of way, in a way that transcended time? Part of the 19th Century, part of the industrial period.

And even a central part of that whole process. You get those collections in most industrial cities.

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And they were contemporary [Laughter]. The iron masters of Birmingham for instance. Maybe their wives and daughters did but they spent good money on them anyway. So then they got them pretty cheap. That if something is new then it must be better. I mean, when I was at music school that was definitely something I was imbued with.

And in some ways I believed it as a composer, that Stockhausen was better than Bartok because he was more contemporary and more relevant. He may have been, he may not have been. I think that ultimately art transcends its own time and that Bach is no more or less relevant than Bartok or anyone else. But that sort of the tone of this is that there was this progressive thing and Warhol must be better than Monet because he is more modern.

And I think it is partly to do with scientific technology that, because we think cars are better now than they were 50 years ago, which perhaps is debatable anyway, but in some ways technology does improve, that all things must improve. You see it in political life as well I think, that politics is better Sangharakshita: But as regards the Impressionists, as I understand the Impressionists what they were concerned with was optical reality, being true to optical reality, and why should that date? It seems that there is still a lot to explore in that area. But I think they misunderstood the science of the time.

You know, as the kind of artistic exploration. I think art reflects the values of the time. I think that is partly. And of course sometimes it reacts against them, the values of the time, as the Pre- Raphaelites did. But also I think why should not artists adopt a particular style regardless of the period to which it belongs in order to achieve a particular effect or purpose. Yeah, there is something else. That to be dismissive of the past is to be dismissive of the tradition that defines the discipline that you are practising.

I mean, I am sort of comparing that sort of statement of what we might say to a student and we are very much more interested in their engagement with the discipline. And if part of their dialogue was engaging with their tradition because it defined their discipline and their interest, there cannot be a problem with that. Well, of course there is such a thing as blindly following contemporary models rather than engaging in that sort of dialogue with them.

Because that could be more meaningless to emulate Damien Hurst or whatever, than to emulate Giotto. There is no reasonable way of making a judgement about what source you are using. It is part of the tradition. Was there any response to this statement by this head of faculty, or was he just speaking ex cathedra as it were? No, prior to taking the party around the local studios, he gave a little talk about the college, about how you apply, and the sort of things you should remember when you apply.

I was with a friend who was thinking of applying. And it was just a little talk. Which college was it, by the way? It was the University of Hertfordshire. Which is supposed to be, supposed to have a good reputation. The art faculty is supposed to have a good reputation. Is that in Saint Albans? The actual faculty is in Hatfield.

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But it is spread around Hertfordshire. And then it may be political for that institution, in that it has had an art department for some time but it has only recently achieved the status of University, and it may want to make up aspirations to be at the cutting edge, or whatever. It will have to produce students at the cutting edge. To produce students at the cutting edge.

Regardless of the interests of the students themselves. That is an aspiration for lots of people. You get in with Saatchi and you have got money in your pocket. This raises very big but very different questions about the, well, the relationship between the artist and the market. The whole commercial issue. Perhaps that would lead us too far afield. Is there a Buddhist view on this? What is the Buddhist perspective on Could you first explain to me how there could be a Buddhist view.

Or what you mean by a Buddhist view? Well, OK, I suppose what I am asking is this idea that things can get better just because of time passing. Well the Buddhist view, if anything, would be the precise opposite. That history has a definite starting point, that is to say, the creation of the universe by God. And a definite conclusion with the last judgement, the coming of the Messiah.

And the intervening period is a period of history. So your, the model of human evolution is not infinite? I sometimes think we get a bit confused. No, I have never said that humanity No, no I realize just having said that Where the individual, so to speak, parts company with the group. The individual within this lifetime can complete, or complete so far as we can see, that higher evolutionary process. I just had it recently with the group I was in.

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Oh, well it must have been a very new Mitra then. The wheel, the wheel into the triangle so that the group can come back down again. But, I mean, that is traditional Buddhist teaching. Is there not a problem, just returning right back to the sort of beginning. You could set up a dichotomy between the past and the present. So inspiration can come from the past, it can come from the present. Past artists, present artists. It can come from nature. It is my main point in response to the problem posed by this question. Actually, the technicological point is quite interesting in this context because he spent not very much time talking about the more what one would call hands on techniques.

He referred to the metalwork department as metal bashing. But he spent a lot of time talking about computers and computer imaging. So he was obviously But he did say that he and his colleagues were not really interested in the past. Yeah, he was full of contradictions.


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  • He was very charming but every so often one of these absolutist statements would emerge. There was a little irony here as well because it is the University of Hertfordshire that set up the bronze casting course that I went on. And what would an institution be doing setting up a bronze casting course and then talking, extolling the virtues of computers. So I think there is some different agenda going on.

    Desde luego que podemos tener preguntas complementarias. Es de Chintamani, quien dice: Por lo que parece casi una especie de enfoque totalitario. Y eso parece ser absolutamente espantoso. A veces los artistas se inspiran directamente en la naturaleza, al menos a veces. Ya sea en las artes visuales o en cualquier otra parte.

    Preferiblemente mujer, por supuesto [Risas]. Entonces esto sugiere, lo cual sospecho es cierto en otros departamentos o facultades, que los miembros de la Facultad usan a los estudiantes con el fin de seguir con sus propios planes particulares. Por lo que tus estudiantes tienen que estar subordinados a tu proyecto. Aquellos sobre los que leo en todo caso. Eso tiene lugar, sin duda. E incluso una parte central de todo ese proceso. Los fabricantes de hierro de Birmingham, por ejemplo. Entonces las obtuvieron muy baratas.

    Que si algo es nuevo, entonces debe ser mejor. This makes them shorter than operas, but still much longer than most other serials. In Spain, they are also called culebrones because of the convoluted plots, episodes of telenovelas usually last between 30 and 45 minutes, and rarely more than an hour, except for final episodes. The telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, and naturally evolved from the Latin American radionovela, by the s and s Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior, particularly successfully in introducing the idea of family planning.

    Mexico and Brazil later, in the s, played a key role in the export of telenovelas. Over time telenovelas evolved in the structure of their plots and in the themes that they address, couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover, previously taboo themes such as violence, racism. Since the s, Latin America and Asia altogether have emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, the end result is that the telenovela requires a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to the soap opera.

    Telenovelas, which are sometimes called tassels or comedias, are produced primarily in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries and are usually shown during prime time. The first telenovelas were produced in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico, Sua vida me pertence was shown twice a week, between and Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli. Telenovelas tend to fall within these six categories, Working-class melodrama and they typically feature a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the Las Tres Marias.

    Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or lots of such as Las tontas no van al cielo Fools Dont Go to Heaven or Yo soy Betty. Drama — Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning action, which is derived from I do, the two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy.

    Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the mode has been contrasted with the epic. The use of drama in a narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example and it is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe drama as a genre within their respective media. Radio drama has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a performance, it has also been used to describe the more high-brow.

    The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production, the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Closet drama describes a form that is intended to be read, in improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance, performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.

    Western drama originates in classical Greece, the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama, tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of celebrating the god Dionysus. The competition for tragedies may have begun as early as BCE, tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play.

    Comedy was officially recognized with a prize in the competition from to BCE, five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia, each offering a single comedy. Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between old comedy, middle comedy and new comedy, following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between — BCE, Rome encountered Greek drama. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, from the beginning of the empire, however, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments.

    The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from BCE, five years later, Gnaeus Naevius also began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived, by the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed. Ramazzotti is popular in Italy and most European countries, and throughout the Spanish-speaking world, since , Ramazzotti he has released 11 studio albums, one EP, three compilation albums, three live albums, and 37 singles.

    He has sold over 60 million records in his year career and this success led to a BMG International record contract in His father originated from the province of Viterbo in Lazio and his mother from the province of Vibo Valentia in Calabria and he was named after Eros, the Greek god of love. He began playing the guitar at age seven, as a teenager, he wrote songs with the help of his father who was a music lover and played piano. He wanted to attend a conservatory but failed the admission examination, and started training in bookkeeping.

    He occasionally appeared as an extra in films while dreaming of having a career as a pop-star, in , Ramazzotti took part in a music contest, Voci Nuove di Castrocaro with the song Rock 80, which he wrote, performing in front of various record label representatives. DDD gave Eros his first contract and he moved to Milan with his brother Marco and his mother Raffaella, and they initially lived in the same building as the record label company.

    Ramazzottis first single, Ad un amico, was released in , soon after, Eros met Renato Brioschi, who mentored the young artist toward his first success in at the highly regarded Sanremo Festival. His song, Terra promessa won the Newcomers category, and was released widely throughout Europe. In , Ramazzotti took part in the Sanremo Festival again with the song Una storia importante, taken from his debut album Cuori agitati. While only placing sixth at the festival, Una storia importante was released as a single and became a hit in many European countries.

    His second album Nuovi eroi, released in , earned two Platinum-awards in Switzerland with over , sales, and Gold status in Germany with over , sales. At his third Sanremo Festival appearance in his memorable single, in , Ramazzotti went on a nine-month-long tour after releasing his third album In certi momenti, performing in front of more than a million people. In certi momenti went Gold in Germany with over , sales and Platinum in Switzerland with over 50, sales, and reached more than 3 million copies worldwide.

    As his career developed, he performed La Luce Buona Delle Stelle with Patsy Kensit on 22 November and his fifth album, In ogni senso, released in April , attracted more than two hundred journalists from around the world to the albums press conference launch in Venice. However, he was disappointed to learn that most of his audience was of Italian descent. Venezuela — Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.

    It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers , km2 and has an estimated population of The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since , the country has had a series of democratic governments.

    Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela also claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil.